What is Robotics Crash Course

Robotics, as the name suggests, is
the science and study of robots. The term robot comes from the
Czech word ‘Robota’ meaning ‘forced labour’ which was
coined by Karel Capek in 1921. Robots, as by what comes
first to the mind, are man-made computerised
machines which performs tasks on human commands or by themselves and
seek to make work easier for human beings. A robot is an integrated system made up of
sensors, manipulators, control systems, power supplies and a software, which work
co-dependently in order to perform a task. The study of robot therefore requires a
multidisplinary approach which includes subjects like science, physics, mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering, structural engineering,
mathematics, computing as well as biology, chemistry and
medicine may also be involved. Making of robots has never
been an easy task and not all machines can be
classified as robots. There are certain characteristics that
makes a machine to be called as a robot. Those characteristics are: Sensing: One of the most important
aspect of a machine to be called as a robot is its ability to sense the
environment in which it is working. The sensing ability of robots are very
not much different from that of humans. They are engineered to have light
sensors which performs the function of eyes, touch and pressure sensors
which perform the function of hand, chemical sensors which performs
the function of nose, hearing and sonar sensors which
perform the function of ears and taste sensors which perform
the function of tongue and all of these sensors together make a
robot aware of its surrounding. Movement: A robot has the ability to move
and locomote from one place to another like Sojourner or either move
one of its parts like Canada Arm to carry out
movement of products. This can be done by the
use of rolling wheels, walking legs or
propelling on thrusters. Energy: A robot is required to have a
power source to carry around tasks. A robot can get its energy through solar
charging, electrical charging or battery charging depending on the nature of the
task to be performed by the robot. Intelligence: One of the most
important characteristic of the robot is that it is
required to be intelligent. The robot is required to have its
‘smarts’ to be able to complete tasks on human command and a robot gets
its ‘smart’ by the programmer. It is essential for the
robot to have some way of receiving program for
its efficient working. The humans have their earnest desire
to do their work with maximum possible ease and comfort and to make
this happen, they invented robots. Taking an example of screwing a
nut over a toaster again and again, day after day, for
numerous days, months or years. This would be a difficult task
to perform for the humans. In such scenarios, robots function
well to perform such repetitive tasks. Manufacturing of bombs and grenade etc
exposes a human being to a danger to life and therefore robots are
engineered well to perform such tasks. A robot is also considered
ideal for going in buildings where there is
a possibility of bomb. Robots are also installed in factories
like that of cars, candy bars and electronics to carry out its
manufacturing and production processes. The use of robots has expanded
to the fields of medicine, military, underwater and
to explore other planets. Robots have been proven
to be a boon for the mankind since the time
of its construction. The use of robots is
encouraged as its use is much cheaper than the
use of human resources. It has also been found
that it is easier for robots to carry out
tasks in even dangerous or difficult situations which may seem
impossible for the human beings to perform. Robots can explore inside the gas tanks
and volcanoes, diffuse a bomb, travel the mars and go to places with extreme conditions
(high or low temperature, pressure etc) or contaminated places where survival
of humans is next to impossible. The robots can do repetitive tasks multiple
number of times without getting bored in less times and with much more accuracy
cutting down on losses, mistakes or hazards. Also, the robots never get sick,
don’t require sleep, don’t need food, doesn’t require to take rest
and never complain about the work proving to be best of the reasons why use
of robots is encouraged in today’s times. The robots can be made from
a variety of materials, the most common being
metals and plastics. The making of robots is not an
easy process and requires ample amount of knowledge, will
power, strength and patience. However, there are three basic components
which are found in every variety of robots. These components are: The Controller: The controller is
referred to as the ‘brain’ of the robot which is programmed to respond to
commands for completion of the task. The command given to the robot by the
controller is detailed in nature as it provides with every minute
information required to make the move. Mechanical Parts: It
consists of parts like pistons, grippers, wheels
and gears that helps the robot to carry out
functions such as holding, griping, turning,
twisting and lifting. These parts require regular
source of energy through means of charging to be able to
complete the commanded task. Sensors: The robots are also
endowed with sensors which allows the robot to make an
estimate about its surrounding. These sensors help the robots to
determine sizes, shapes, space between objects, direction and
other properties of substance. Some even have the capability
to determine the pressure that needs to be applied to pick an
item without destructing it. All these components of the robots
working in relation with each other for obtaining the desired
output through the work of robot. Artificial Intelligence also known as the
machine intelligence is incorporated into the robots to give them the ability
to exhibit human-like behaviour. The main aim of the artificial intelligence
was to recreate the human intelligence. Some robots are capable of
learning through situations and using the learned knowledge
to make future decisions. The robots can even count
the number of cookies that they are packing into
boxes or can estimate the time interval of the interchanging of
traffic light colors to regulate traffic etc. The face recognition software, complicates
scheduling software, or games that requires players response are all examples of artificial
intelligence which are presently used. All the things in and around come with
its set of pros and cons and this therefore indicates that there are certain
limitations to the use of robots. The robots are not able to
take decision of their own i.e. they lack decision-making
ability and perform only those tasks that
they are programmed for. Even though they are engineered to be
artificially intelligent and possess the ability to learn they still are limited
by the commands from the controller. The field of science is never-ending and
continuously advancing field and robotics is a part of it which started to gain
importance in the mid-21st century. The manufacture of robots has been proven
to be useful in various fields and its production continues for achieving maximum
profits and development benefits.

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5 thoughts on “What is Robotics Crash Course

  1. Plz add some more videoes related to robotics….i mean some detailed explaination about the key terms used in it…..tq u

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